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Job Market Support


Every candidate's situation is unique. Your venture into the job market is your personal campaign. And, while every candidate is likely to encounter certain difficulties and challenges, some candidates may discover that, due to their particular circumstance, the task may be especially challenging. If you are a member of a marginalized or under-represented group, you may be entering the job market with some degree of trepidation. Perhaps you may have experienced discrimination in the past. Or perhaps you simply were unable to locate any resources for your particular situation. Candidates may be especially nervous about the job market and workplace if they are, for example, recent college graduates, international students, liberal arts students, LGBTQ students, disabled, pregnant, or former military.



Recent Graduates
Job Market Trends and Realities

21st Century Career Success
Reality Checks for Career Planning
Millennials in the Workplace

Alumni Notes for Recent Grads

What is a Career?
How to Find Your Passion

Paradigm Shift: Job Search vs. Career Management
Career Planning Guide: A to Z

Myths About Choosing a Career

Accessing the Hidden Job Market

Excellent Career Advice

Career Planning for Today's College Students
Competitive Job Market Strategies

What Can I Do With This Major?

How Successful People Think

How to Feel Satisfied in Your Career

How Prepared are Today's College Graduates?

What Do Employers Really Want?
What Should I Do With My Life?



International Students
Career Planning Tools and Strategies

International students can offer employers a wide range of skills and abilities, including a US education, knowledge of business practices in another country, and multiple language skills.


Start the process early. It takes perseverance and motivation for international students to find employers who are interested in your skills and attributes regardless of your visa status.


Be aware that some US companies do not sponsor or hire international students or individuals who are not US citizens.  Looking for a job is not easy for any student. For you, the international student, the job search process can be more difficult because of employment limitations and restrictions for international students. Additional information about the employment process and related topics can be found through Career Services  and on the Internet. It is important when researching internship and full time opportunities to obtain information on each employer’s policy regarding international hires.


Tips and Advice


Utilize the Career Services Office and take advantage of the resources, tools, information, services and activities they offer. Participate in Internships and Field-Based Programs to gain experience and network.  Conduct Informational Interviews. Reach out to personal and academic contacts.  Meet with a Career Counselor for help with your career planning and career exploration needs.  Meet with a Career Counselor for help with your Résumé Writing, Interview Prep and Job Search Strategies.  Attend Career Workshops for practical training in Job Search Strategies, Interview Prep, Résumé Writing, and Grad School Prep.  Attend Career Events, including Career Fairs, Grad School Expos, and Information Sessions.


Get advice from other international students who have successfully found internships and employment in this country. Learn more about Employment Authorization and obtain up-to-date information on how to apply for CPT and OPT. Learn more about F-1 International Student Employment Authorization. Visit an International Student Advisor if you plan on pursing work opportunities in the US to review employment authorization procedures.


Hiring International Students

Association for International Practical Training

Grad Siren: OPT and CPT Opportunities

Council on International Cultural Exchange
UniWorld Publications
US Dept of Labor Empl and Training Admin Foreign Labor Data Certification Center
Going Global


Communication Skills


If you're an international student in search of a U.S. internship, you need to realistically assess your qualifications for working in America. Keep in mind that in most cases you will be competing with U.S. students for internship positions. Companies need to know what is unique about your background and why they should hire you instead of your U.S. counterpart.


A visa or work permit is required, unless you're lucky enough to have dual citizenship. Fluency in English and strong written English skills are generally a must. A clearly defined area of study and related previous work experience will help show your commitment to the job and potential as a long-term employee. Your native language may also be a valuable asset if a company has dealings with your home country.


Strong communications skills are key.  You can help the employer make an informed hiring decision if you: Provide a well-prepared resume that includes desirable skills and relevant employment experiences. Clearly convey your interests and ability to do the job in an interview. Understand English when spoken to you and can effectively express your thoughts in English.


It’s important to be able to positively promote yourself and talk with confidence about your education, relevant skills and related experiences. Self-promotion is rarely easy for anyone. But, it can be especially difficult for individuals from cultures where talking about yourself in an assertive manner is considered inappropriate. When interviewing in the United States, however, you are expected to be able to explain your credentials and why you are suitable for the position.


Be sensitive to the interviewer’s verbal and nonverbal cues. Some international students may not realize when their accent is causing them to be misunderstood. Interviewers are sometimes too embarrassed or impatient to ask for clarification, so be on the lookout for nonverbal clues, such as follow-up questions that don’t match your responses or sudden disinterest on the part of the interviewer.  Also, make sure you express proper nonverbal communication; always look directly at the employer in order to portray confidence and honesty. If your English language skills need some work, get involved with campus and community activities. These events will allow you to practice speaking English. The more you use the language, the more proficient you will become.


Hiring International Students

Association for International Practical Training

Grad Siren: OPT and CPT Opportunities

Council on International Cultural Exchange
UniWorld Publications
US Dept of Labor Empl and Training Admin Foreign Labor Data Certification Center
Going Global


LGBTQ Students

Out in the Workplace


We all grow up imagining the exciting careers we will have as adults. We find our interests, focusing on our happiness and paths to success. Often, our career choices require us to work for a certain company and sometimes we end up there out of necessity.


We become so focused on our careers and making a living that we often don't anticipate discrimination towards gays in the workplace. We are suddenly faced with the difficult decision of coming out at work or revealing our sexual orientation to co-workers. We ponder over many questions: Should I come out? How will I be treated by my peers? Will I get passed up for a promotion because I am gay? Does my partner qualify for my benefits? Is there a gay organization at work?


LGBTQ Job Market|Workplace

Yale’s GALA Class Reunion Music Video

College Toolkit: Choosing an LGBTQ-Affirming College

Things Queer Students Should Know Before Going to College

Campus Pride: 15 LGBTQ-Friendly College Campuses

Research Paper: LGBTQ Issues in Higher Education
Campus Pride: Making Campuses Safer and More Welcoming for LGBTQ Students


LGBTQ Friendly Companies


Choosing the right company to work for is a good start in finding an affirming and inclusive environment. Conduct good research about prospective companies.  LGBTQ-friendly companies typically have a written non-discrimination policy covering sexual orientation in their employee handbook or manual.  LGBTQ-friendly companies typically have a written non-discrimination policy covering gender identity and/or expression in their employee handbook or manual.   LGBTQ-friendly companies typically offer health insurance coverage to employees' same-sex domestic partners.  LGBTQ-friendly companies typically support a gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender employee resource group; or would support employees' forming a LGBTQ employee resource group if some expressed interest by providing space and other resources; or have a firm-wide diversity council or working group whose mission specifically includes LGBTQ diversity.   LGBTQ-friendly companies typically offer diversity training that includes sexual orientation and/or gender identity and expression in the workplace.  LGBTQ-friendly companies typically engage in respectful and appropriate marketing to the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender community and/or provide support through their corporate foundation or otherwise to LGBTQ or HIV/AIDS-related organizations or events. And LGBTQ-friendly companies typically do not engage in corporate action that would undermine the goal of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.


LGBTQ Job Market|Workplace

Advice on Being Gay in College

List of LGBTQ and LGBTQ Friendly Fraternities & Sororities

Top LGBT Friendly College Campuses

Campus Pride Index


State of the Workplace


While corporate America has demonstrated leadership in providing fair and equal treatment for LGBTQ employees, there is still significant work that is yet to be done.


Despite overwhelming public support for employment non-discrimination for LGBTQ employees (87% in a recent Gallup poll), there is still no federal law mandating the basic standard of non-discrimination on the basis of either sexual orientation or gender identity and expression. In the absence of national, legal protections for LGBTQ employees, LGBTQ employees are forced to rely on an incomplete patchwork of state and local laws for protection from workplace discrimination. Workers in 34 states could be fired because of their sexual orientation or gender identity and expression at any time.


By enacting non-discrimination policies that explicitly protect LGBTQ employees on the job, some companies have attempted to fill the void left by this legislative inaction. An increasing number of companies have realized that providing equal benefits and protections for LGBTQ employees in the workplace is not only a sound business practice, but a requirement to recruit and retain the best employees possible.


Smart businesses also recognize LGBTQ consumers’ $600 billion in buying power and their high degree of brand loyalty to companies that treat their LGBTQ employees equally. In today’s business environment, diversity is considered a competitive advantage. Put simply, employer policies that are LGBTQ-inclusive are a smart business practice.


LGBTQ Job Market|Workplace

Human Rights Campaign

National Gay & Lesbian Task Force

Queer Cafe: LGBTQ Information Network

Out & Equal Workplace Advocates

Pro Gay Jobs

Out For Work

Liberal Arts Students
Marketing Your Broad Based Education

“It is not always true that a person’s major determines the types of jobs he or she is qualified for. A major does not equate with a job or set of jobs. And no one major guarantees that a person will obtain a job. Employers judge candidates according to the skills they possess and their ability to perform functions associated with the job. Today’s liberal arts majors need to learn to think and speak with a skills vocabulary. The burden of proving that you are qualified for employment rests on you, not on the title of your major.”

-BURTON JAY NADLER / Liberal Arts Power



“In industry, leaders respond with a strong endorsement of the liberal arts education as a prelude to many employment opportunities. Well-rounded candidates with evidence of creativity and leadership are most valuable in the job market.”

-O’NEAL & WALLACE / Journal of College Placement


“I seek candidates who possess a liberal arts literacy. I seek people with a broader vision. I seek individuals who have a sense of history and perspectives from literature and art.”

-MICHAEL THOMAS / Investment Banker and Businessman


 “Liberal arts graduates have the qualifications employers seek, and, whether they know it or not, they have the capacity to market those qualifications successfully.”

-BURTON JAY NADLER / Liberal Arts Jobs


 “A liberal arts degree is more valuable today than ever before. And you are more prepared for the job market than you realize. In response to the shifting landscape of a global marketplace, companies now require employees who are generalists rather than specialists. No one is better equipped in today’s world than liberal arts majors, whose scope is the big picture and whose sweep of study has trained them to think critically. You are uniquely qualified for the changes taking shape.”

-GREGORY GIANGRANDE / Liberal Arts Advantage


Liberal Arts Advantage

Major and Career Profiles

How to Set Goals
What Do Employers Really Want?

Unconventional|Alternative Careers

Finding Your Career Passion

What is a Liberal Education?

Career Guide for Liberal Arts Students
Career Success for Liberal Arts Majors

What Can I Do With my Liberal Arts Degree?
Marketing Your Liberal Arts Degree



Disabilities in the Workplace

Career Tips for Disabled Persons


Do you have a disability? Under the ADA , you have a disability if you have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity. ... An employer cannot refuse to hire you because your disability prevents you from performing duties that are not essential to the job. What Medical Conditions Are Listed?

--musculoskeletal problems, such as back injuries
--cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure or coronary artery disease
--senses and speech issues, such as vision and hearing loss
--respiratory illnesses, such as COPD or asthma
--neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy
--mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, autism, or retardation
--immune system disorders, such as HIV/AIDS, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis
--various syndromes, such as Sjogren's Syndrome and Marfan Syndrome
--skin disorders, such as dermatitis

--digestive tract problems, such as liver disease or IBD
--kidney disease and genitourinary problems, and
--hematological disorders, such as hemolytic anemias and disorders of bone marrow failure

NOD: National Organization on Disability

EEOC: Disability Discrimination

New York Times: Disabilities as Assets in the Workplace

USA Today: More Businesses Opening Up to People With Disabilities

Monster: Tips for Job Hunting With a Disability

Huff Post: Enabling People With Disabilities to Get Jobs

Ladders: How to Talk About Your Disability During a Job Search

Amazon: Job Search Handbook for People With Disabilities

Forbes: Benefits of Disability in the Workplace



Pregnant Job Hunters

Career Tips for Expectant Moms


Should you tell a potential employer that you are pregnant?  Job hunting while pregnant can be a difficult situation to negotiate. Lots of tactful maneuvering and good timing may be required. 


First, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 made it unnecessary for pregnant women to divulge their condition and illegal for potential employers to ask. If a woman is not showing her pregnancy yet, then none of that initially matters. But if she is showing, then that can lead to a very uncomfortable situation.


But, even though Federal law forbids discrimination based on pregnancy, it would be hard to prove definitively that the company chose not to hire you because of your pregnancy. The law may be clear, but the hiring process and job negotiations can be dicey.  Most experts recommend that you do not disclose your pregnancy in an initial stage of the conversation, because it shouldn’t be relevant to the employer’s decision.


An employer that is willing to take on a pregnant employee will have to find a way to accommodate the initial physical challenges of the pregnancy and then sustain the employee’s position while she is out on maternity leave. If the employee is qualified for the position and can be an asset to the company, then those few months of inconvenience are well worth the years of productive service the employee can offer.


If a woman is showing her pregnancy at an interview, then it is probably a good idea to bring the subject up since the interviewer probably noticed. At that point, the interviewer can decide if the pregnancy is an issue or not. If the woman is not showing, then she should go through the interview process and see if it brings about a written job offer.


Once the written job offer is made, then the female candidate can start negotiating from a position of confidence. A company cannot rescind a job offer due to a pregnancy.


If you’re being offered your dream job, and you really want things to go well, after you get it, you might be inclined to say, “I am pregnant and I’ll be taking some time off” relatively early in the process. Ideally, working out the details becomes a way to ensure both sides of the negotiation are aligned for the long term.


The main issue to negotiate is the terms of the leave of absence for the pregnancy. The Families and Medical Leave act allows for 12 weeks of recovery time for a pregnancy. It is at the discretion of the company as to whether that is paid or not. But as a new hire, that rule does not apply.


If you are planning to go right back to work after a brief maternity leave, that will make your negotiations easier.  If you require a long absence, that might make things more difficult.


You have to have a few months in with a company before you can lean on the FMLA rules. The pregnant female candidate and the company will have to negotiate terms of her leave to make sure that the company is treated fairly and the candidate does not lose her job. Once those terms are reached, then the employment can begin.


Unofficial Rules of Job Hunting While Pregnant

Legal Advice for Pregnant Job Hunters

When to Tell a Prospective Employer That You are Pregnant

Job Interviewing While Pregnant



Former Military
Career Tips for Veterans


Transitioning From Military Service

Transition Difficulties for Vets

Tips for Successful Military Career Transition

Tips for Service Members Entering Civilian Job Market

Translating Military Experience to Civilian Terms

Translating Military Experience to Civilian Employment

Military Job to Civilian Skill Translator

Army Military Occupation Specialties

MOS Code Translator



Job Loss

Outplacement Advice

No matter what you may call it…  laid off, terminated, dismissed, outplaced, fired…  the experience is a hurtful one.  It is not unusual that you may feel discouraged, frustrated, isolated, fearful and depressed.  You may feel overwhelmed and disoriented.  You may feel worthless.  You may feel like a failure.  You may feel like someone has pulled the rug out from underneath you. After losing your job, you may experience any or all of the typical emotions associated with any kind of major loss, including the initial shock, the immediate anger, the subsequent grief, and finally an acceptance of your situation.


Among a variety of life-altering events, such as death in the family, divorce, and serious illness, losing your job ranks among the highest in stress-causing situations.  Job loss can have a profound effect on your emotional well being.  Being separated from one's job is extremely difficult.  Many of us closely identify ourselves by what we do for a living.  When the job is taken away, we can lose track of who we are and even why we are.  Emotional issues aside, a number of practical issues must be addressed.  We must determine how long our financial resources will sustain us.  We must also decide if a career change  is in order.  Then we must begin to plan for the future.


Outplacement: Job Loss Resources

About Career Planning: Coping With Job Loss

Professionals in Transition

Love To Know: Stress Management and Managing Job Loss

Help Guide: Job Loss and Unemployment Stress

Improving My Life: How to Deal With Losing Your Job



Career Transition

New Directions

For professionals in transition, the issues and concerns regarding career change can be critical.  For mature, experienced workers considering a mid-life career transition,
many important factors must be addressed.  Are there new directions you want to explore?  Is it time to try new things?  Are you seeking a new challenge?  Are you seeking more freedom and independence?

Changing Course

Successful Career Change

Making the Most of Your Mid-Life Career Transition
Unconventional Mid-Life Career Change Tips
What Makes a Successful Mid-Life Career Transition?

Making a Mid-Life Career Change
Simple Steps to Mid-Life Career Change Success

Professionals in Transition

Job Loss|Outplacement





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